Thursday, May 12, 2016

What Is In A Name Part 2

This article is continuation of the examination of What Is In A Name and how the use of the nomenclature Sub-Saharan obscures biblically the identity of Blacks in the bible.  In my minor research of this topic I begin looking more into the DNA aspect of it and I unequivocally state at this point that I am not a DNA specialist, but I do have the ability to engage in deductive reasoning once gaining a basic foundation in the subject.  In my Extended Introduction I referenced a young man who approached the identification of Israel amongst people of the African diaspora slave trade through Y-dna  haplogroup.   Through his research he determined that Y-DNA haplogroup E1b1a was the Y-DNA of Israel through their father Jacob and that his twin brother Esau as a separate nation is/was E1b1b.  However, he is of the view that for him the Most High defaulted him to E1b1b a Hamitic haplogroup. 

Before moving forward it is necessary to get a working definition of Y-DNA haplogroup.  DNA is basically genetic coding.  Y-dna is the paternal dna passed from father to son.  I will leave it up to the reader if they want more exacting information as the scientific verbiage can be rather long.  According to Wiki, a haplogroup is a combination of alleles at different chromosome regions that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together.  It is a group of individual organisms which share a common ancestor.  For example,  y-dna E would be the haplogroup of E1b1a which is a descendant of E.  Within each haplogroup can be sub-clades or subgroups of the major haplogroup which if the reader reviews the charts below will see that represented in the E1b1b haplogroup in populations of Egypt and North Africa.  I have provided Y-dna charts of Africa, Europe, South Asia and Central Asia with pictures below so that one can have a visual of points I make in this article.

My reason for examining the dna side of the Israel Of Ultimate Dispersal is because one day I saw a woman who was clearly from Africa, but not of the usual Africans I see.  She seemed Sudanese of some sort and it had me wondering if she was really the same as Black Americans.  Upon further thought and looking up the y-dna from where it appeared she was from, I came to the conclusion that E1b1b was not Hamitic but of Edom or Esau entirely.  Given that haplogroup A and B exist in populations such as the Dinka, Khoisan, Nuba and so forth but have little or no representation in the Bantu groups who test largely for E1b1a it is reasonable that they are representative of the true Hamites.   If one looks at the chart for North Africa and Egypt and Ethiopia they will see E1b1b and it's subclades highly represented in the population groups.  For instance, E1b1b has a high representation in the Oromo of Ethiopia and the Somali.  The Amhara show Japhetic or Asian representation at a fairly high percentage for the sample taken.  The Somalis show some Japhetic representation but are highly Edomite.  They have Asiatic or Japhetic mtdna M1 in addition to L1and 2 no L3e.  E1b1b also has high occurrence in the populations of Europe which bolster my assertion that the Edomites mixed with the Japhetic races including the Askenazi Jews and lost phenotype eventually.  There is noticeably no E1b1a in the populations of Europe sampled though that may change in the future as more Black males have children with European women and those children potentially marry into the Japhetic (white) race.

When one looks at the European chart they see an assortment of alphabets.  The J haplogroup is a popular one in Europe as is R1a and R1b.  All of these haplogroups except R1b are present in the Askenazi Jewish sample.  Ironically, I believe it is the J haplogroup that they like to associate with the Middle East bearing in mind that doesn't necessarily mean Israel.  Again in antiquity there was no Middle East terminology.   When one examines the chart of India and Central Asia he will see the haplogroups of Europe represented in India or South Asia and Central Asia.  Amazingly, India and Central Asia has a lot alphabet haplogroups compared to the ones considered native to Africa.  The Egyptian chart reveal that modern Egyptians have the same Edomite representation of E1b1b as well as a bit of the original Hamitic A/B group with the Japhetic haplogroups of J, G, T and some R.  In a nutshell Europe is dominated by the same y-dna haplogroups of India and Central Asia as well as in Saudi Arabia.  The only difference is some of these groups exhibit albinism and others still have some melanin or are mulattoes from mixture with native Black or melanated populations.

During the Trans-Atlantic slave trade it is without question that the majority of people taken to America, the Caribbean and Latin America were of the E1b1a y-dna.  But there were also some Hamites and other Shemitic people taken as well.  This is seen in a sampling of Haitian people. What is intriguing is that I do not believe any E1b1b or Edomites were captured or sold.  They more than likely participated in the selling along with some Hamites and  Ismaelite Islamic tribes.  On the female side, it is said the majority of women were of mtdna L3e. This mtdna is not present in the North African Edomite Berber groups as they married mostly European or Japhetic women.  It also suggest that the Bantus' were the truly endogamous group on the continent either a throwback to their Israelite roots or just cultural cleaving among strange and hostile groups of people. 

It is suggested that E1b1a originated in northeast Africa as with E1b1b, but I read somewhere that in antiquity Israel today would have been northeast Africa.  This makes sense as it was a Hamitic land with the original people there being Canaanites before the Israelites usurped them in the land.  Therefore, in keeping with Biblical testimony Jacob (E1b1a ) and Esau (E1b1b) had their origins in Canaan northeast Africa and they seemed to run into each other all through their lives and not without hostility.  When Israel was exiled in 70ad Esau descendants were wherever they went and lived on in true irony in the sons of Japheth who now dwells in the tent of Shem with the blood of Edom coursing through some of their veins.

Image of Oromo girl. Note the reddish-brown sorrel color.
The same color of Esau when he was born. The Hebrew word used
was saroq or ruddy.

Y-DNA Chromosome Haplogroups of Sub-Saharan Africa

Igbo woman. The Igbo tested had a high
percentage E1b1a and no other Ydna represented
in the chart

Of the Tutsi people of Rwanda sampled they also have
a high percentage of E1b1a and no Asiatic dna in the sample

Listed here are the human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups found in various ethnic groups and populations from Sub-Saharan Africa. Based on relevant studies, the samples are taken from individuals identified by linguistic designation (AA=Afroasiatic, KS=Khoisan, NS=Nilo-Saharan and NC=Niger–Congo). The table below's third column gives the total sample size studied, and the other columns indicate the percentage observed of the particular haplogroup.
PopulationLanguage groupnABE1aE1b1aE1b1bE2JR1bTReference
Afro-Asiatic[nb 1]Afro-Asiatic (AA)2365. 2005[1]
AlurNilotic (NS)9220011067000Wood 2005[1]
Amhara (Ethiopia)Semitic (AA)4814.62.10-35.4033.304.2Hassan 2008[2]
BamilekeBantoid (NC)8500010000000Luis 2004[3]
Bantus (Gabon)Bantu (NC)7950. 2009[4]
Bantus (Kenya)Bantu (NC)2913.83.4051.713.717.2000Hurles 2005[5]
Bantus (Tanzania)[nb 2]Bantu (NC)1102.79.1-48.221.816.4001.8[3][6]
Bantus (South Africa)[nb 3]Southern Bantu (NC)1375.110.9054.74.421.2000Wood 2005[1]
Bantus (South-Eastern)Bantu (NC)3435.016.3--66.21.510.2--0--Naidoo 2010[7]
BejaCushitic (AA)424.800052.4038.14.80Hassan 2008[2]
Benin (Fon)Gbe (NC)1000009505000Luis 2004[3]
BerbersBerber (AA)643025800600Cruciani2002[8]
Burkina Faso[nb 4]Niger–Congo (NC)10600.93.881.12.811.3000Cruciani2002[8]
BurungeCushitic (AA)24025--433--------Tishkoff 2007[6]
Cameroon (North)[nb 5]Adamawa (NC)721.412.54.254.200027.80Cruciani2002[8]
Cameroon (North)[nb 6]Chadic (AA)541.83.7013.03.77.4070.40Cruciani2002[8]
Cameroon (South)[nb 7]Bantoid (NC)8905.6093.30001.10Cruciani2002[8]
R.D. Congo (East)[nb 8]Bantu (NC)362.80063.913.919.4000Wood 2005[1]
Copts (Sudanese)Arabic (AA)33015.20021.2045.515.2-Hassan 2008[2]
Cross River (Nigeria)Cross River (NC)11130----87----000Veeramah2010[9]
DatogNilotic (NS)3533--1154--------Tishkoff 2007[6]
DinkaNilotic (NS)26622300150000Hassan 2008[2]
DogonDogon (NC)551.87.345.543.601.8000Wood 2005[1]
EthiopiansAfro-Asiatic (AA)24217.80.80-48.80.426.903.7Moran 2004[10]
Ethiopian JewsCushitic (AA)2241000500505Cruciani2002[8]
Fulbe[nb 9]Senegambian (NC)375.4029.748.6--00--8.1Cruciani2002[8]
Fulbe (Sudan)Senegambian (NC)26000034.60053.80Hassan 2008[2]
Fulbe (Nigeria)Senegambian (NC)21-------0-Cruciani2010[11]
FurFur (NS)3231.33.10059.406.300Hassan 2008[2]
Ghana[nb 10]Kwa (NC)91002.292.31.1001.10Wood 2005[1]
HadzaHadza (Isolate/KS)80057.5-26.215.0----Tishkoff 2007[6]
Hausa (Sudan)Chadic (AA)3212.515.6012.53.10040.60Hassan 2008[2]
HemaNortheast Bantu (NC)18602.2282839000Wood 2005[1]
Hutu (Rwanda)Northeast Bantu (NC)690408338010Luis 2004[3]
Igbo[nb 11]Volta–Niger (NC)209A3b2=0--89.3--0-0Veeramah 2010[9]
IraqwCushitic (AA)9022011560000Wood 2005[1]
Khoisan[nb 12]Khoisan (KS)9047.714.4024. 2005[1]
KhoisanKhoisan (KS)18344.311.5023.016.41.601.60Naidoo 2010[7]
Khoisan (South Africa)[nb 13]Khoisan (KS)12933.312.4035.714.73.9000Tishkoff 2007[6]
Kikuyu & KambaNortheast Bantu (NC)4222073190000Wood 2005[1]
ǃKungNorthern Khoisan (KS)64368039116000Cruciani2002[8]
LuoNilotic (NS)9112206600000Wood 2005[1]
MaasaiNilotic (NS)26278016500000Wood 2005[1]
MandinkaMande (NC)395337983000Wood 2005[1]
MasalitMaban (NS)3218.83.10071.906.300Hassan 2008[2]
MossiGur (NC)4902--902--------Tishkoff 2007[6]
Namibia (Nama)Khoikhoi (KS)11640018900-0Wood 2005[1]
NandeNortheast Bantu (NC)1800010000000Wood 2005[1]
Niger–Congo[nb 14]Niger–Congo (NC)7052.79.64.568. 2005[1]
Nilo-Saharan[nb 15]Nilo-Saharan9112.135.2029.714.38.8000Wood 2005[1]
Nilo-Saharan[nb 16]Nilo-Saharan34523.217.4--9.933.92.66.1----See [nb 17]
NubiansNubian(NS), Arabic(AA)3907.70023.1043.610.30Hassan 2008[2]
NubaNuba (NS)2846.414.30039.30000Hassan 2008[2]
NuerNilotic (NS)1233.3500016.70000Hassan 2008[2]
Oromo (Ethiopia)Cushitic (AA)7810.31.30- 2008[2]
OuldemeChadic (AA)13-------95.5-Cruciani2010[11]
Pygmy (Mbuti)Central Sudanic (NS)4725903404000Wood 2005[1]
Pygmy (Western)[nb 18]Niger–Congo (NC)60553.3-28.30-03.30Berniell 2009[4]
SandaweSandawe (tentative/KS)68414-4334----Tishkoff 2007[6]
SenegaleseNiger–Congo (NC)139005. 2008[2]
ShillukNilotic (NS)1553.326.700200000Hassan 2008[2]
Shuwa ArabsArabic (AA)5-------40-Cruciani2010[11]
SomalisCushitic (AA)2010.51.001.581.10.53.0R1a=110.4Sanchez2005[12]
South African WhitesIndo-European157000.60.69.603.851.6--Others=33.8[7]
Sudan (Arabs)[nb 19]Semitic (AA)1022.900016.7047.115.70Hassan 2008[2]
South Sudan (Nilotic)[nb 20]Nilotic (NS)8150.624.70024.700-0Hassan 2008[2]
West Sudan (Darfur)[nb 21]Nilo-Saharan (NS)9027.82.20062.204.4-0Hassan 2008[2]
Tuareg (Burkina Faso)[nb 22]Tuareg (AA)38--016.777.80-0-Pereira 2010[13]
Tuareg (Mali)[nb 23]Tuareg (AA)21--09.190.90-0-Pereira 2010[13]
Tuareg (Niger)[nb 24]Tuareg (AA)31--044.416.70-33.3-Pereira 2010[13]
Tutsi (Rwanda)Northeast Bantu (NC)9401508014000Luis 2004[3]
WolofSenegambian (NC)340012. 2005[1]
YorubaVolta–Niger (NC)130809200000Tishkoff 2007[6]
XhosaSouthern Bantu (NC)8055054528000Wood 2005[1]
ZuluSouthern Bantu (NC)29320055021000Wood 2005[1]

Y Chromosome DNA of North Africa

Algerian Mozabite Berber man

Y-dna haplogroups of North Africa

By population

Algeria/Oran10207.9%05.9%45.1%0000022.5%4.9%1%11.8%1%Robino et al. (2008)[1]
Algeria/Algiers3502.9%011.4%42.9%011.8%2.9%0022.9%5.7%000Arredi et al. (2004)[2]
Algeria/Kabyles/Tizi Ouzou19000047.4%10.5%10.5%00015.8%0015.8%0Arredi et al. (2004)
Algeria/Mozabites6704.5%01.5%86.6%1.5%001.5%01.5%003%0Dugoujon et al. (2009)[3]
Tunisia/Sousse2200.5%2.3%2.3%5.9%44.6%1.8%000.5%025.9%8.2%0.5%0.9%6.8%Fadhlaoui-Zid et al. (2015)[4]
Tunisia (immigrants to Italy)52009.6%15.4%32.7%01.9%1.9%0034.6%3.8%000Onofri et al. (2008)
Tunisia/Bou Omrane Berbers4005%05%87.5%02.5%00000000Ennafaa et al. (2011)[5]
Tunisia/Bou Saad Berbers40000092.5%000005%0002.5%Ennafaa et al. (2011)
Tunisia/Jerbian Arabs462.2%0015.2%60.9%4.3%00008.7%2.2%4.3%2.2%0Ennafaa et al. (2011)
Tunisia/Jerbian Berbers4700017%76.6%04.25%2.1%0000000Ennafaa et al. (2011)
Tunisia/Chenini–Douiret Berbers270000100%0000000000Fadhlaoui-Zid et al. (2011)[6]
Tunisia/Sened Berbers35000065.7%02.9%00031.4%0000Fadhlaoui-Zid et al. (2011)
Tunisia/Jradou Berbers320000100%0000000000Fadhlaoui-Zid et al. (2011)
Tunisia/Andalusian Zaghouan320003.1%40.6%09.4%00043.8%3.1%000Fadhlaoui-Zid et al. (2011)
Tunisia/Tunis33003.0%6.0%54.5%3.0%6.0%03.0%024.2%0000Fadhlaoui-Zid et al. (2011)
Tunisia/Tunis14802%3.4%5.4%37.8%2.7%4.7%0.7%0032.4%3.4%0.7%6.1%0.7%Arredi et al. (2004)
Morocco22106.4%4.1%6.8%65%00.9%1.8%0.9%0.5%5%4.1%04.1%0Fregel et al. (2009)
Morocco4900%0%42.9%32.6%00%0%0%0%10.2%10.2%00%0Semino et al. (2004)
Morocco4400%0%11.4%52.3%00%0%0%0%13.6%2.3%00%0Semino et al. (2004)
Morocco513.9%5.9%5.9%5.9%54.9%0000019.6%003.9%0Onofri et al. 2008[7]
Morocco159007%049%0000010%0000Aboukhalid et al. 2010[8]
Morocco17606.3%5.1%6.3%63.6%%0000013.6%002.8%0Bosch et al. 2001[9]
Morocco/Central8709.8%06.1%56.1%0000019.5%8.5%000%Fadhlaoui-Zid et al. (2013)[10]
Morocco/Amizmiz Valley333%6.1%03%84.8%3%000000000Alvarez et al. (2009)
Morocco/Asni Berbers5409.3%1.9%3.7%79.6%000001.9%001.9%1.9%Dugoujon et al. (2009)
Morocco/Middle Atlas Berbers692.9%5.7%010.1%71.0%0004.3%05.8%0000Dugoujon et al. (2009)
Morocco/Bouhria Berbers6707.5%01.5%77.6%0006.0%01.5%1.5%4.5%00Dugoujon et al. (2009)
Sahrawi89020.2%0059.6%0000020.2%0000Fregel et al. (2009)
Libya21509.5%011.1%35.9%1.5%004.2%030.5%3.4%0.4%03.4%Fadhlaoui-Zid et al. (2013)
Libya1750.60%0.6%1.7%8.0%33.7%1.1%4.6%0.6%1.1%2.0%27.4%6.9%1.7%5.1%4.9%Triki-Fendri et al. (2015)[11]
Egypt/Western Desert3505.7%5.7%28.6%28.6%0000031.4%0000Kujanová et al. (2009)[12]
Egypt1472.7%2.7%018.4%8.2%9.5%07.5%9.5%019.7%12.2%3.4%4.1%2.1%Luis et al. (2004)[13]
Egypt/Siwa Berbers9328.0%6.5%2.2%6.5%1.1%2.2%003.2%07.5%6.5%028.0%8.3%Dugoujon et al. (2009)
Egypt (North)442.3%04.5%27.3%11.4%9.1%6.8%2.3%009.1%9.1%2.3%9.9%6.8%Arredi et al. (2004)
Egypt (South)290.0%0017.2%6.9%6.9%17.2%10.3%03.4%20.7%3.4%013.8%0Arredi et al. (2004)
Canary Islands65201.4%03.5%8.3%2.3%004%9.7%3.5%10.4%2.8%50.6%0Fregel et al. (2009)[14]
Tuaregs from Libya47042.5%0048.9%000000006.4%2.1%Ottoni et al. (2011)[15]
Tuaregs from Mali1109.1%09.1%81.8%0000000000Pereira et al. (2011)[16]
Tuaregs from Burkina Faso18016.7%0077.8%005.6%0000000Pereira et al. (2011)
Tuaregs from Niger185.6%44.4%05.6%11.1%0000000033.3%0Pereira et al. (2011)

Y Chromosome DNA of Egypt

Young boys in Southern Egypt

Young Nubian children South Egypt

Modern Egyptian women


DNA studies on modern Egyptians

In general, various DNA studies have found that the gene frequencies of modern North African populations are intermediate between those of the Horn of Africa and Eurasia,[19] though possessing a greater genetic affinity with the populations of Eurasia than they do with Africa.[3][3][4] The present population of the Sahara is Caucasoid in the extreme north, with a fairly gradual increase of Negroid component as one goes south.[6][20][21] The results of these genetic studies is consistent with the historical record, which records significant bidirectional contact between Egypt and Nubia, and the Levant/Middle East within the last few thousand years, but with general population continuity from the Early Dynastic Period of Egypt up to the modern day era.[22][23]
Genetic analysis of modern Egyptians reveals that they have paternal lineages common to indigenous North-East African populations primarily (Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco), and to Middle Eastern peoples to a lesser extent—these lineages would have spread during the Neolithic and were maintained by the predynastic period.[6][24]
A study by Krings et al. (1999) on mitochondrial DNA clines along the Nile Valley found that a Eurasian cline runs from Northern Egypt to Southern Sudan and a Sub-Saharan cline from Southern Sudan to Northern Egypt.[25]
Luis et al. (2004) found that the male haplogroups in a sample of 147 Egyptians were E1b1b (36.1%, predominantly E-M78), J (32.0%), G (8.8%), T(8.2%), and R (7.5%). E1b1b and its subclades are characteristic of some Afro-Asiatic speakers and are believed to have originated in either the Middle East, North Africa, or the Horn of Africa. Cruciani et al. (2007) suggests that E-M78, E1b1b predominant subclade in Egypt, originated in "Northeastern Africa", which in the study refers specifically to Egypt and Libya [2][26]
Other studies have shown that modern Egyptians have genetic affinities primarily with populations of Asia, North and Northeast Africa,[27][28][29][30] and to a lesser extent Middle Eastern and European populations.[31]
Some genetic studies done on modern Egyptians suggest that they are not closely related to most Sub Saharan Africans.[32] Other studies suggest that they are instead mostly closely related to other North Africans.[29] In addition, some studies suggest lesser ties with populations in the Middle East, as well as some groups in southern Europe.[30] A 2004 mtDNA study of upper Egyptians from Gurna found a genetic ancestral heritage to modern Northeast Africans, characterized by a high M1 haplotype frequency and a comparatively low L1 and L2 macrohaplogroup frequency of 20.6%. Another study links Egyptians in general with people from modern Eritrea and Ethiopia.[28][33] Though there has been much debate of the origins of haplogroup M1 a recent 2007 study had concluded that M1 has West Asia origins not a Sub Saharan African origin[34] Origin A 2003 Y chromosome study was performed by Lucotte on modern Egyptians, with haplotypes V, XI, and IV being most common. Haplotype V is common in Berbers and has a low frequency outside North Africa. Haplotypes V, XI, and IV are all predominantly North African/Horn of African haplotypes, and they are far more dominant in Egyptians than in Middle Eastern or European groups.[35]

Y-DNA haplogroups

A study using the Y-chromosome of modern Egyptian males found similar results, namely that North East African haplogroups are predominant in the South but the predominant haplogroups in the North are characteristic of North African and West Eurasian populations.[36]
PopulationNbA/BE1b1aE1b1b1 (M35)E1b1b1a (M78)E1b1b1b (M81)E1b1b1c (M123)FKGIJ1J2R1aR1bOtherStudy
1 Egyptians1472.7%2.7%018.4%8.2%9.5%07.5%9.5%019.7%12.2%3.4%4.1%2.1%Luis et al. (2004)[37]
2 Egyptians from El-Hayez Oasis (Western Desert)3505.70%5.7%28.6%28.6%0000031.4%0000Kujanová et al. (2009)[38]
3 Egyptians from Siwa Oasis (Western Desert)9328.0%6.5%2.2%6.5%1.1%2.2%003.2%07.5%6.5%028.0%8.3%Dugoujon et al. (2009)[39]
4 Northern Egyptians442.3%04.5%27.3%11.4%9.1%6.8%2.3%009.1%9.1%2.3%9.9%6.8%Arredi et al. (2004)
5 Southern Egyptians290.0%0017.2%6.9%6.9%17.2%10.3%03.4%20.7%3.4%013.8%0Arredi et al. (2004

Y Chromosome DNA A

Alex Wek of the ethnic Dinka tribe
one of carriers of Y dna Haplogroup A

In human genetics, Haplogroup A is a Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. Unlike all other Y-DNA haplogroups, it is not defined by a specific mutation, but as the foundational clade of the patrilineal lineage of contemporary human population, by definition rooted in this population's Y-MRCA (or "Y-chromosomal Adam").
Formerly also known as "clade I",[3] bearers of extant sub-clades of haplogroup A are entirely found in Africa (or among descendants of recently extracted African populations), in contrast with the descendant haplogroup BT ("clade II-X") bearers of which participated in the Out of Africa migration of anatomically modern humans.
The most basal subclades of haplogroup A are, by age of divergence, "A00", "A0", "A1" (also "A1a-T") and "A2-T". Haplogroup BT, ancestral to all non-African haplogroups, is a subclade of A2-T.

Haplogroup A is largely restricted to Africa, though a handful of bearers have been reported in Europe and Western Asia. The clade achieves its highest modern frequencies in the Bushmen hunter-gatherer populations of Southern Africa, followed closely by many Nilotic groups in Eastern Africa. However, haplogroup A's oldest sub-clades are exclusively found in Central-Northwest Africa, where it (and by extension the patrilinear ancestor of modern humans) is believed to have originated. Estimates of its time depth have varied greatly, at either close to 190 kya or close to 140 kya in separate 2013 studies,[5][7] and with the inclusion of the previously unknown "A00" haplogroup to about 270 kya in 2015 studies.[8][9]
The clade has also been observed at notable frequencies in certain populations in Ethiopia, as well as some Pygmy groups in Central Africa, and less commonly Niger–Congo speakers, who largely belong to the E1b1a clade. Haplogroup E in general is believed to have originated in Northeast Africa,[10] and was later introduced to West Africa from where it spread around 5,000 years ago to Central, Southern and Southeastern Africa with the Bantu expansion.[11][12] According to Wood et al. (2005) and Rosa et al. (2007), such relatively recent population movements from West Africa changed the pre-existing population Y chromosomal diversity in Central, Southern and Southeastern Africa, replacing the previous haplogroups in these areas with the now dominant E1b1a lineages. Traces of ancestral inhabitants, however, can be observed today in these regions via the presence of the Y DNA haplogroups A-M91 and B-M60 that are common in certain relict populations, such as the Mbuti Pygmies and the Khoisan.[13][14][15]
Haplogroup A frequencies
Study populationFreq.
(in %)
[14]Tsumkwe San (Namibia)66%
[14]Nama (Namibia)64
[16]Dinka (Sudan)62
[16]Shilluk (Sudan)53
[16]Nuba (Sudan)46
[18][19]Ethiopian Jews41
[16]Borgu (Sudan)35
[16]Nuer (Sudan)33
[16]Fur (Sudan)31
[14]Maasai (Kenya)27
[20]Nara (Eritrea)20
[16]Masalit (Sudan)19
[14][21]Amhara (Ethiopia)~16
[22]Bantu (Kenya)14
[14]Mandara (Cameroon)14
[16]Hausa (Sudan)13
[18]Khwe (South Africa)12
[18]Fulbe (Cameroon)12
[14]Dama (Namibia)11
[21]Oromo (Ethiopia)10
[20]Kunama (Eritrea)10
[14]South Semitic (Ethiopia)10
[22]Arabs (Egypt)3
In a composite sample of 3551 African men, Haplogroup A had a frequency of 5.4%.[23] The highest frequencies of haplogroup A have been reported among the Khoisan of Southern Africa, Beta Israel, and Nilo-Saharans from Sudan.