Thursday, May 12, 2016

Y Chromosome DNA of Egypt

Young boys in Southern Egypt

Young Nubian children South Egypt

Modern Egyptian women


DNA studies on modern Egyptians

In general, various DNA studies have found that the gene frequencies of modern North African populations are intermediate between those of the Horn of Africa and Eurasia,[19] though possessing a greater genetic affinity with the populations of Eurasia than they do with Africa.[3][3][4] The present population of the Sahara is Caucasoid in the extreme north, with a fairly gradual increase of Negroid component as one goes south.[6][20][21] The results of these genetic studies is consistent with the historical record, which records significant bidirectional contact between Egypt and Nubia, and the Levant/Middle East within the last few thousand years, but with general population continuity from the Early Dynastic Period of Egypt up to the modern day era.[22][23]
Genetic analysis of modern Egyptians reveals that they have paternal lineages common to indigenous North-East African populations primarily (Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco), and to Middle Eastern peoples to a lesser extent—these lineages would have spread during the Neolithic and were maintained by the predynastic period.[6][24]
A study by Krings et al. (1999) on mitochondrial DNA clines along the Nile Valley found that a Eurasian cline runs from Northern Egypt to Southern Sudan and a Sub-Saharan cline from Southern Sudan to Northern Egypt.[25]
Luis et al. (2004) found that the male haplogroups in a sample of 147 Egyptians were E1b1b (36.1%, predominantly E-M78), J (32.0%), G (8.8%), T(8.2%), and R (7.5%). E1b1b and its subclades are characteristic of some Afro-Asiatic speakers and are believed to have originated in either the Middle East, North Africa, or the Horn of Africa. Cruciani et al. (2007) suggests that E-M78, E1b1b predominant subclade in Egypt, originated in "Northeastern Africa", which in the study refers specifically to Egypt and Libya [2][26]
Other studies have shown that modern Egyptians have genetic affinities primarily with populations of Asia, North and Northeast Africa,[27][28][29][30] and to a lesser extent Middle Eastern and European populations.[31]
Some genetic studies done on modern Egyptians suggest that they are not closely related to most Sub Saharan Africans.[32] Other studies suggest that they are instead mostly closely related to other North Africans.[29] In addition, some studies suggest lesser ties with populations in the Middle East, as well as some groups in southern Europe.[30] A 2004 mtDNA study of upper Egyptians from Gurna found a genetic ancestral heritage to modern Northeast Africans, characterized by a high M1 haplotype frequency and a comparatively low L1 and L2 macrohaplogroup frequency of 20.6%. Another study links Egyptians in general with people from modern Eritrea and Ethiopia.[28][33] Though there has been much debate of the origins of haplogroup M1 a recent 2007 study had concluded that M1 has West Asia origins not a Sub Saharan African origin[34] Origin A 2003 Y chromosome study was performed by Lucotte on modern Egyptians, with haplotypes V, XI, and IV being most common. Haplotype V is common in Berbers and has a low frequency outside North Africa. Haplotypes V, XI, and IV are all predominantly North African/Horn of African haplotypes, and they are far more dominant in Egyptians than in Middle Eastern or European groups.[35]

Y-DNA haplogroups

A study using the Y-chromosome of modern Egyptian males found similar results, namely that North East African haplogroups are predominant in the South but the predominant haplogroups in the North are characteristic of North African and West Eurasian populations.[36]
PopulationNbA/BE1b1aE1b1b1 (M35)E1b1b1a (M78)E1b1b1b (M81)E1b1b1c (M123)FKGIJ1J2R1aR1bOtherStudy
1 Egyptians1472.7%2.7%018.4%8.2%9.5%07.5%9.5%019.7%12.2%3.4%4.1%2.1%Luis et al. (2004)[37]
2 Egyptians from El-Hayez Oasis (Western Desert)3505.70%5.7%28.6%28.6%0000031.4%0000Kujanov√° et al. (2009)[38]
3 Egyptians from Siwa Oasis (Western Desert)9328.0%6.5%2.2%6.5%1.1%2.2%003.2%07.5%6.5%028.0%8.3%Dugoujon et al. (2009)[39]
4 Northern Egyptians442.3%04.5%27.3%11.4%9.1%6.8%2.3%009.1%9.1%2.3%9.9%6.8%Arredi et al. (2004)
5 Southern Egyptians290.0%0017.2%6.9%6.9%17.2%10.3%03.4%20.7%3.4%013.8%0Arredi et al. (2004

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