Thursday, May 12, 2016

Y Chromosome haplogroup B of Africa

Man of the Nuba people

Khoisan Bushman another African people
with representation of B haplotype

In human population genetics, haplogroups define the major lineages of direct paternal (male) lines back to a shared common ancestor. Haplogroup B (B-M60) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup common to paternal lineages in Africa, in Arabian Peninsula and in Eurasia.


Haplogroup B-M60 is found in sub-Saharan Africa, especially to tropical forests of West-Central Africa. After Y-haplogroup A, it is the second oldest and one of the most diverse human Y-haplogroups. It was the ancestral haplogroup of not only modern Pygmies like the Baka and Mbuti, but also Hadzabe from Tanzania, who often have been considered, in large part because of some typological features of their language, to be a remnant of Khoisan people in East Africa.
According to one study of the Y-DNA of populations in Sudan, haplogroup B-M60 is found in approximately 30% (16/53) of Southern Sudanese, 16% (5/32) of local Hausa people, 14% (4/28) of the Nuba of central Sudan, 3.7% (8/216) of Northern Sudanese (but only among Copts and Nubians), and 2.2% (2/90) of Western Sudanese.[5] According to another study, haplogroup B is found in approximately 15% of Sudanese males, including 12.5% (5/40) B2a1a-M109/M152 and 2.5% (1/40) B-M60(xM146, M150, M112).[7]
In Madagascar, haplogroup B-M60 has been found in approximately 9% of Malagasy males, including 6% (2/35) B-M60(xB2b-50f2(P)) and 3% (1/35) B2b-50f2(P).[12]
In Hormozgan Province in Iran, haplogroup B-M60 has been found in 8.2% of a sample of 49 Qeshmi people, and in 2.3% of a sample of 131 Bandari people.[13]
In Afghanistan, haplogroup B-M60 has been found in 5.1% (3/59) of a sample of Hazara males.[14]
In United Kingdom, haplogroup B-M60(xM218) has been found by FTDNA in 1
M60, M181/Page32, P85, P90, V62, V75, V78, V83, V84, V85, V90, V93, V94, V185, V197, V217, V227, V234, V237, and V44
Highest frequenciesBaka 63% (Gabon & Cameroon)[1] - 72% (CAR),[2] Hadzabe (Tanzania) 52%[3]-60%,[4] Nuer (South Sudan) 50%,[5] Mbuti (DRC) 33%[6]-60%,[2] Biaka (CAR) 35%[6]-55%,[2] Central Africa 32%,[7] Tsumkwe San (Namibia) 31%,[2] Khoisan 28%,[7] Shilluk (South Sudan) 27%,[5] Burunge (Tanzania) 25%,[4] Dinka (South Sudan) 23%,[5] Ngumba (Cameroon) 23%[2]-33%,[1] Eviya (Gabon) 21%,[1] Fali (Cameroon) 18%,[6] Sotho–Tswana (South Africa) 18%,[2] Zulu (South Africa) 17%,[2] Eshira (Gabon) 17%,[1] Shake (Gabon) 16%,[1] Hausa (Sudan) 16%,[5] Sukuma (Tanzania) 16%,[3] Bakola (Cameroon) 15%[2]-36%,[1] Copts (Sudan) 15%,[5] Sudan 15%,[7] Kunama (Eritrea) 15%,[8] Tutsi (Rwanda) 15%,[9] Sandawe (Tanzania) 15%,[4] Uldeme (Cameroon) 5%[6]-31%,[2] Nuba (Sudan) 14%,[5] Makina (Gabon) 14%,[1] Southern Africa 13%,[7] Mali 11%,[7] Ewondo (Cameroon) 10%,[6] Ethiopia 10%,[7] Shona (Zimbabwe) 10%[2] Qeshmi (Iran) 8,2%,[10] Bandari (Iran) 2,3%,[10] Hazara (Afghanistan) 5,1%,[11]

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